How to Refinish or Reglaze a Bathtub

How to Refinish or Reglaze a Bathtub

Refinishing a Bathtub at a Glance

  • Tools & Materials: Putty knife, screwdriver, masking tape, scraping tool, Lysol cleaner, palm sander, refinishing kit
  • Step 1: Remove caulk
  • Step 2: Remove drain and overflow plate
  • Step 3: Clean and prep area
  • Step 4: Prep coating
  • Step 5: Apply coating
  • Step 6: Add caulk

When your bathtub has grown old and becomes worn out, you might consider replacing it. Unfortunately, replacing a bathtub isn’t the easiest thing, and the costs can quickly add up. But getting rid of your old tub isn’t the only option if you want to make your bathroom look fresh. You can always refinish or reglaze the bathtub instead.

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Tub reglazing or refinishing costs significantly less than a full tub replacement. By applying a new layer of epoxy paint to your bathtub, you can make it look brand new again. Here’s how to do it.

bathroom bathtub re-glazing-BEFORE

What’s the Difference Between Reglazing and Refinishing?

“Reglazing” and “refinishing” both refer to the same process of restoring an old bathtub and making it look new again. You might hear some professionals call the process “refinishing” and others call it “reglazing,” but at the end of the day, they’re the same thing.

Can You Reglaze a Tub with Rust Spots?

As the topcoat of the tub deteriorates and exposes the metal surface, it can lead to rust. The continuous mix of air and water helps speed up the rusting process. Luckily, it’s entirely possible to still reglaze a tub with rust spots. You just need to sand it adequately before you cover it up with the new coating.

Refinishing a Bathtub: 6 Steps

Bathtub refinishing fumes can be harmful to people, so make sure you wear safety equipment and send everyone else out of the house when doing this. If you don’t feel too comfortable or confident with this project, it’s better to hire a professional that knows exactly what they’re doing.

Tools and Materials

You will want to wear safety equipment like gloves and safety glasses. Tools required for the job include a putty knife, screwdriver, masking tape, scraping tool, Lysol cleaner and palm sander. You can buy a bathtub finishing kit that comes with epoxy paint and application tools to apply it.

Step 1: Remove the Existing Caulk

Part of the process for reglazing is adding new caulk. You will want to remove any existing caulking around the entire bathtub. Use a scraping tool to scrape all around the tub, including the open side bottom, and remove all the caulk.

Step 2: Remove the Drain and Overflow Plate

One of the most common mistakes inexperienced DIYers make is leaving in the tub drain and overflow plate. You will want to remove these to get the most out of your refinish and ensure it lasts for years. To remove the overflow plate, use a screwdriver.

Removing the drain is a very crucial step to ensure you get a smooth finish. When the drain is not taken out, the area around the drain will deteriorate since it wasn’t adequately refinished. In the worst-case scenario, some of the coating may go inside the drain and cause issues.

To remove the drain, you can use a drain tool. If it’s an older drain, you’ll need to use pliers and force it out of there. After that’s done, add a cup below the drain hole so that when you apply the material, it falls into the cup rather than your pipes.

Step 3: Clean the Tub and Prepare the Area

You should clean the tub at least one day before you plan to do the refinishing. Any water that remains will make the process more complicated. To clean the tub, use a Lysol cleaner and spray it across the entire area. Then, dip the scrub brush in water, scrub the tub gently and wash it down with more water. After washing it, wait a day before proceeding.

Add cardboards or newspaper to the floors to catch any accidental spills and prevent stains. Tape around the tub. When you’re taping the open side of it, ensure that the tape on the bottom is also slightly taped to the tub instead of just the floor. When you tape the enclosed sides of the tub, you can just tape the tile. The benefit of cleaning the tub the day before is that it will be easy to tape around the area without worrying about moisture.

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bathroom bathtub re-glazing-AFTER

Step 4: Prepare the Coating

If you ordered a bathtub finishing kit, you’ll have two containers. Part B is the activator which you will want to pour into the main base container. Then, use the stirring stick that comes with the kit and make sure the epoxy paint is thoroughly mixed.

As a side note, you shouldn’t use any mixing tools for this since mixers will bring in air and often lead to bubbles in the material, which is not ideal. It can only be done by hand, so do it gently. According to Home Repair Tutor, the minimum amount of time you should spend stirring is 10 minutes. It’s an essential step to get a quality finish. After you finish mixing, let it sit for another 10 minutes.

Step 5: Apply the Coating

Pick up the can and pour it onto the edges of the tub, letting it slide down them. Then, use a roller to distribute the material all around the tub. Ensure you gently spread it along the edges and let the material roll down the sides. The key here is to use the roller gently and let it spread the epoxy all around.

A scooper will come along with the kit that you can use to scoop the epoxy and add it all around the tub. You can also use a putty knife to apply the paint to other places if that’s easier. Make sure all the areas are covered, especially around the overflow plate and drain hole. Another common mistake is not getting the material into the corners, so make sure those are covered.

Since the material falls down the sides on both ends, use a scooper or putty knife to pick up large quantities before they build up on the bathroom floor.

Step 6: Add Caulk

Let the material sit for the next 24 hours before you apply the caulk. When you come back, the material around the caulking areas will have hardened around the tub, so use a knife or glazing tool to cut through it. After that’s done, remove all the tape and caulk the edges.

How Many Times Can You Reglaze a Tub?

While you might have done a perfect job refinishing the first time, things always become worn out after years of use. It’s possible to reglaze or refinish a bathtub that has already been refinished once. However, the underlying layer will require more preparation in terms of cleaning and sanding, so it’s best to let a professional do it the second time around.

As an alternative, you can always install a tub liner instead. A tub liner is a PVC sheet or acrylic mold that is added over your existing bathtub. You will also want a professional to do this job since accurate measurements are crucial for manufacturing one that fits well with the tub.

How Long Does Reglazing Last?

A reglaze can last anywhere from 10 to 20 years, depending on the quality of the job. Performing routine maintenance, like cleaning the bathtub, can help extend its life. A professional reglaze will also last longer than a DIY project.

What’s a Wet Room?

What’s a Wet Room?

A wet room is a bathroom, except the whole thing’s designed to get wet. Think floor-to-ceiling tile, waterproof décor and a shower that’s out in the open. Wet rooms are certainly trendy as of late, and it’s no wonder why: They’re functional, accessible and may even raise the value of your home.

This May Also Interest You: How Much Does a Shower Remodel Cost?

Wet rooms are a popular bathroom style in some European countries. The minimalist concept crams everything a bathroom needs — a toilet, shower and sink — into as little space as possible. In particularly cramped spaces, you might see a showerhead above the toilet and the drain in the center of the room.

The floor is slightly sloped toward the drain so you’re not left with any standing water. Often, the sink and toilet are “floating” models anchored to the wall so there are no extra spaces for water to collect and form mildew or mold. If there’s room, you might also have a waterproof cabinet to store the things you’d rather keep dry.

American iterations of the wet room are usually larger, with multiple showerheads, spa-like tile and perhaps a bathtub. You may also see semi-wet rooms where the shower is tucked behind a small half wall or glass divider.

Benefits of a Wet Room

Here are four reasons why you’d want a wet room:

1. Accessibility

In a traditional wet room, there are no barriers. That makes the space accessible for household members who may have mobility issues or use mobility aids. Depending on the placement of your fixtures, you can use the closed toilet as a shower seat. It’s also a great setup for pet parents: You don’t have to worry about the inevitable splash-over when you’re trying to give your dog a bath.

2. Easy to Clean

Everything is made to get wet, so it’s easy enough just to spray down the whole room when it comes time to clean. There’s no need for a shower curtain or a bathmat, so the only textiles that need to be laundered are the towels.

3. Makes the Most of Your Space

Not all bathrooms are created equal, space-wise. When you’re remodeling, you may find yourself having to choose between the walk-in shower and a big, luxurious bathtub. A wet room allows you to combine those features in one space. Wet rooms don’t need to be large, either. They can often fit all the fixtures of a full bathroom in the same space as a half-bath.

4. Resale Value

According to data from Remodeling Magazine, you could recoup up to 64% of the cost of a midrange bathroom remodel when you sell your home. A wet room is considered a “high-end addition,” so depending on the quality of the materials, you may see a higher return on your investment.

However, a lot of buyers aren’t looking to go all in on wet rooms. And most buyers are looking for a house with a bathtub. Fixr recommends homeowners keep at least one American-style bathroom. Converting a small half-bath, the kids’ bathroom or the guest bathroom into a wet room may be a lucrative investment.

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Can You Turn an Existing Bathroom Into a Wet Room?

Yes, but it’s going to require a serious remodel — and almost certainly not a DIY one. The drain sits at a lower level than everything else, so the floor will have to be reconstructed with a grade that will allow the water to flow toward it. The walls and floor will need to be waterproofed.

You’ll also run into a lot of limitations with the materials you can put in a wet room. Usually, the only options are tile, porcelain, metal and plastic. Say goodbye to wood accents or cabinetry. You’ll probably have to cover your walls in tile, too.

How Much Does It Cost to Install a Wet Room?

Due to the aforementioned extras, it costs a bit more to install a wet room than it does to remodel a traditional, American-style bathroom. Remodeling a traditional bathroom costs about $18,000 on average, where a wet room costs over $21,000. The difference comes down to the price of waterproofing materials. If you choose to install something like radiant floor heating, that’ll cost you extra, too.

Since we’re all home now more than ever, being prepared for unexpected home repairs with a plan from Service Line Warranties of America is important. Having a plan in place gives you peace of mind knowing that you can simply call our 24/7 repair hotline for covered breakdowns. See what plans are available in your neighborhood.

How to Tighten a Faucet Handle

Tightening a Faucet Handle at a Glance

  • Tools & Materials: Allen wrench, screwdriver, wrench, flashlight, plumber’s tape, thread sealant
  • Tightening a Set Screw:
    • Step 1: Remove covers
    • Step 2: Tighten screw
    • Optional: Add thread sealant
  • Tightening a Retainer Nut
    • Step 1: Clear space under sink
    • Step 2: Locate retaining nut
    • Step 3: Tighten nut
    • Optional: Wrap with plumber’s tape

A loose faucet handle is no doubt annoying. But did you know that a loose faucet handle can also damage your sink’s plumbing lines over time? That being said, tightening a loose faucet handle is something you should address sooner rather than later.

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The good news is that it’s easy to fix, and there’s no need to dish out any of your hard-earned cash for a professional plumber. Read on to learn how to easily tighten a faucet handle.

Tools and Materials

  • Allen (Hex) wrench
  • Screwdriver: Phillips- or flat-head, depending on the faucet
  • Wrench: Adjustable, combination or basin
  • Flashlight
  • Optional: Teflon thread (plumber’s) tape
  • Optional: Non-permanent thread sealant

Why Is My Faucet Handle Loose?

Faucet handles can naturally become loose over time, but they may also be loose because of a sloppy or improper faucet replacement. Regardless of the reason, there are two main causes of loose faucet handles:

The Set or Handle Screw Is Loose

On most faucets, the handle will be secured to the faucet by a small Allen screw (set screw) that’s screwed horizontally into the outside perimeter of the handle’s base plate cover, or with a Phillips- or flat-head screw (handle screw) that’s screwed vertically into the handle’s base. Single-handle faucets will likely only use a single-set screw. Two-handled faucets may use a retaining nut, handle screw or both, depending on the model.

The Retaining Nut Is Loose

A sink’s faucet or handles are sometimes secured to the sink with a retaining nut located underneath the sink. If this nut becomes loose, the handle will become loose.

How to Tighten a Faucet Handle

Before performing any of these steps, you should turn off the water supply to your faucet. While this step isn’t a mandatory step, doing so will eliminate the possibility of flooding if you damage any plumbing components during the repair.

There are two shut-off valves (angle valves or angle stops) underneath the sink and coming out of the wall. Turn each of the valves clockwise (“righty-tighty”) until they’re fully closed. Fully open the faucet handles to relieve the residual water pressure and to verify that your water supply is turned off.

step-by-step instructional guide on how to tighten the temperature handles on a sink  In this case, we are looking at an oil rubbed faucet on a utility sink

Tightening the Set Screw or Handle Screw

Locate the set screw or handle screw. If your faucet handle is secured to the baseplate with a set screw, there will be a small hole somewhere around the perimeter of the cover. Inside this hole will be a small Allen screw. Select the appropriate Allen wrench, then gently turn the set screw clockwise until the screw is firmly seated.

step-by-step instructional guide on how to tighten the temperature handles on a sink  In this case, we are looking at an oil rubbed faucet on a utility sink

If your handle uses a handle screw, begin by removing the decorative caps on the top of the handles. These will often be labeled or colored — “H” or red for hot and “C” or blue for cold. You can either use a knife or flat-head screwdriver to gently pry these covers off. Inside, you should see a Philips- or flat-head screw. Turn this screw clockwise until the screw is firmly seated.

Physically inspect the faucet handle to verify your repair was successful. For a stronger and longer-lasting repair, you can fully remove the screws and add a non-permanent thread sealant compound to the screw’s threads. This will help to prevent the screw from coming loose in the future.

step-by-step instructional guide on how to tighten the temperature handles on a sink  In this case, we are looking at an oil rubbed faucet on a utility sink

Tightening a Retainer Nut

Clear the space under your sink. Remove any cleaning or kitchen supplies you have stored under your sink to make room for you to work.

Slide under your sink, resting on your back and facing the underside of your sink. Using a flashlight to increase visibility, locate the retaining nut holding the faucet handle in place.

Select the right wrench and tighten the nut. You can use an adjustable wrench, combination wrench (with one open wrench end and one box wrench end) or basin wrench to tighten the nut. Either set the adjustable wrench to the appropriate size or select a wrench that fits the retaining nut. A basin wrench might be required if the retaining nut is too difficult to access with a conventional wrench.

Turn the nut in a clockwise direction until snug. You can also fully remove the nut and wrap the female threads the nut screws onto with plumber’s tape for a stronger and longer-lasting hold. Come out from under the sink and physically verify that the handle is tight.

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How Do You Fix a Faucet Handle That Keeps Turning?

Most faucet handles are designed with internal “stops” that only let the handle turn in a limited range of motion. For example, a half-turn in the clockwise direction will turn the faucet fully on, and a half-turn in the counter-clockwise direction will turn the faucet off. The component responsible for this limited range of motion is the faucet cartridge.

When the faucet cartridge becomes stripped (either over time or due to the wear-and-tear from a loose handle), the handle will turn continuously without stopping, resulting in leaks and other plumbing issues. Take the following steps to replace the cartridge:

1. Shut off the water supply to your faucet.

2. Remove the handle using the steps in previous sections to expose the cartridge. The cartridge’s appearance will vary between faucet models, but it will always be directly underneath the faucet handle.

3. Locate the nut holding the cartridge in place. The nut will be at the base of the cartridge, resting on top of the sink.

4. Remove the nut. Select the appropriately sized wrench for the nut, then turn counter-clockwise to remove it from the threaded stem it’s seated on. Slip the nut over the cartridge to free the cartridge.

5. Remove the old cartridge and replace it with a new one.

6. Place the nut back onto the threaded stem and tighten it clockwise with your wrench until snug. You can also wrap the threads with plumber’s tape before reinstalling the nut for a stronger connection.

7. Reinstall the faucet handle and physically inspect it to verify the success of your repair.

8. Turn the faucet’s water supply back on.

How to Install or Replace a Shower Drain

How to Install or Replace a Shower Drain

A shower drain is an important plumbing fixture that captures water and directs it towards your home’s sewage system. You can install a shower drain as part of a home renovation project or replace an existing one when you notice a leak.

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Doing this project DIY-style — whether you’re installing or replacing — shouldn’t take you more than an afternoon. Keep on reading to find out how.

How Do You Install a Shower Drain?

The type of shower drain you install depends on several factors, including the flooring material and your particular scenario. Below are two popular options when it comes to installing a shower drain.

How to Install a Shower Drain on a Prefabricated Shower Pan

When renovating a bathroom, a new shower drain should always be part of the process. A drain assembly — which consists of a drain body, strainer, compression gasket, compression nut, compression wrench, drain nut, fiber gasket and rubber gasket — will cost you between $7 and $60 at your nearest hardware store. This is the piece you will attach to a preformed shower pan, a one-piece base that is usually made from acrylic and reinforced with fiberglass.

You’ll need some plumber’s putty to act as a sealant between the shower pan and the drain assembly. Roll the putty into a half-inch bead and wrap it around the underside of the drain body flange. Insert the drain body through the hole of the shower pan from the top and press down firmly (do not twist) to form an even seal.

At the bottom of the shower pan, place the rubber gasket and fiber gasket (in that order) onto the drain body. Insert the drain nut and tighten it with your hand. When it gets too hard to turn, use a set of adjustable pliers or a wrench to tighten it all the way through. Use your index finger to remove any excess putty from the top of the drain.

For this part, get a buddy to help you lower the shower pan onto the shower base. The shower base, in this scenario, is the substructure of the shower’s subfloor. It will have a drain hole with a 2-inch drain pipe located in the middle. The drainpipe should be positioned in the center of the drain body as you’re lowering the shower pan onto the shower base.

Once this is done, grab the compression gasket and insert it from the top of the hole, bevel side up, making sure that it fits in the space between the drain body and pipe. Push it down until it sets at the bottom.

Next, thread the compression nut over the drain pipe. Insert the compression wrench into the compression nut and tighten with a screwdriver. Finish the shower drain install by snapping strainer or drain cover onto the drain body.

How to Install a Shower Drain for a Tile Floor

Since tiles are square (in most cases), you will need a drain assembly with a square strainer. There are essentially three parts to a tile floor assembly: the drain barrel (where the strainer is attached), drain body and clamping ring.

Begin installing the shower drain after you’ve finished installing the subfloor and drain pipe. Fit the drain body over the drainpipe, ensuring that the flange is resting on the subfloor. Use solvent cement to bond them together.

Next comes the bottom mortar bed. Be sure to cover the drain body with a clean rag before you apply it so the drainpipe remains clean. Lay down the layer of mortar starting from the wall. Make sure there is a slope every ¼ inch per foot, all the way to the drain’s opening. The mortar bed should be flush with the drain body’s flange.

Wait for the mortar bed to dry. Afterward, install a pan liner on top of it. This is a waterproof membrane that catches any water that seeps through the mortar bed and directs it towards the drain. Cut a hole in the membrane around the drain hole and around the inner and outer mounting holes of the drain body. Screw some bolts into the outer mounting holes to secure the pan liner and drain body to the subfloor.

Place the clamping ring above the membrane. Align its mounting holes with the ones on the drain body and screw it in. This will sandwich the membrane between the drain body and the clamping ring. Fill the shower floor with 2 to 3 inches of water to check if the membrane has any leaks.

If there are no leaks, screw the drain barrel into the clamping ring; stop when it reaches the height you want. Leave at least 1 inch of space between the drain body and the top of the drain barrel. Apply another mortar bed layer on top of the pan membrane and finish installing the tile floor once it’s dry.

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Replacing a Shower Drain

Is the floor underneath your shower showing signs of water damage? If so, there may be a leak that requires the shower drain to be replaced. If you do this yourself, you won’t have to call a plumber for a costly replacement. Here’s how.

How to Replace a Shower Drain from Underneath

If the shower drain replacement is on a prefabricated shower pan, you have to go at it from the bottom. This will allow you to effectively take the drain assembly apart. Be sure to turn off the electricity in the area you’ll be working in before you begin. Then, use a flat screwdriver to pop the strainer out of the drain body to expose the compression nut. Insert your compression wrench into the compression nut and turn it counterclockwise with a screwdriver to unscrew it.

Using a combination of a utility knife and drywall saw, cut a rectangular hole in the ceiling beneath the drain. Make sure the hole is big enough to fit adjustable pliers and is along the joist so you have something to support the new drywall when patching it up. Use the adjustable pliers to loosen the drain until you can remove the rest of it with your hand. Follow that up by removing the rubber and fiber gaskets as well.

If you see that the drainpipe is welded or glued to a U-shaped pipe (also called the P-trap), you’ll need to cut it. This will make it easier to push out the drain pipe and cut out the drain body. However, you’ll need to know how to replace a shower drain trap as well once you cut it. Without the P-trap, sewer gases can travel into your home through the drain line. In addition to the unpleasant smell, long-term exposure to this gas can be harmful.

Install a new drainpipe in the shower base and repeat the steps on how to install a shower drain on a prefabricated shower pan. Repeat the above steps for installation — from inserting the drain body, to tightening the drain nut, to snapping the drain cover on top of the drain. However, since the shower pan is already on the floor, you don’t have to struggle with lowering and positioning it.

Assemble a new P-trap by gluing its pieces together and gluing the assembly to the drainpipe. Turn on the water and dash back downstairs to see if there are any leaks. If there are no leaks, patch up the drywall.

How to Replace a Shower Drain from the Top

When performing a shower drain replacement on tile flooring, you don’t need to go underneath. Start by unscrewing the drain barrel, cleaning the drainpipe and covering the hole to prevent debris from falling in it. Then, carefully pry out the tiles around the shower drain and chisel that area until the subfloor and mounting bolts are exposed. Unscrew the bolts and remove the clamping ring and drain body.

Install the new tile floor assembly while patching up the membrane and mortar bed. Don’t forget to check for leaks when you’re done. To patch the membrane, cut a new piece of membrane to fit the area you destroyed. Make holes for the drain and the mounting holes of the drain body. Apply caulk along the chiseled area and apply the patch. Leave the caulk to dry and patch the mortar bed with deck mud.

Down the Drain

By following the steps outlined above, you should be able to confidently install or replace a shower drain on your own. You’ve even learned how to plumb a shower drain by installing a brand-new P-trap. Not only is doing this by yourself cost-effective, but it is oh-so-satisfying when you watch the water — and not the hard-earned cash you could have spent on a plumber — go down the drain.

How to Replace a Shower Handle

How to Replace a Shower Handle

Replacing a Shower Handle at a Glance

  • Step 1: Turn off water supply
  • Step 2: Unscrew set screw
  • Step 3: Remove handle from valve
  • If handle is corroded: Add plumber’s lubricant
  • Step 4: Remove trim plate
  • Step 5: Wrap faucet stem with Teflon tape
  • Step 6: Screw handle in place
  • Step 7: Replace trim plate

As wonderful as your shower might be, there are certain things that can always improve your experience — a nice showerhead, a superior sponge, the perfect arsenal of soaps and shampoos and, of course, a nice, functional handle that doesn’t leak.

This May Also Interest You: Showerhead Stuck? Here’s How to Remove It

The good news is that replacing this essential shower control and its accompanying trim is an extremely simple task that you can knock out quickly without eating into your precious shower time.

Can You Replace Just the Shower Handle?

Yes. In fact, sometimes, just changing the shower handle without replacing the valve makes the most sense. A shower handle gets the brunt of the whole “taking a shower” business — getting twisted and turned, pushed and pulled. It’s no wonder they age quickly. Perhaps the style or finish isn’t to your liking, and you’re left wondering how easily you can upgrade without having to call in a plumber.

For this particular project, ye should fret not. In most cases, replacing the shower knob or handle is a pretty straightforward task. Consider the following guide to help you remove a shower faucet handle, install a new one and get on with your day.

How Do You Replace a Single-Handle Shower Faucet?

Shower handles come in a variety of styles, including single-, double- and even triple-handle styles. If you’re working with a shower-tub combo, you might have any one of these setups. A stand-alone shower is more likely to have a single handle, but double handles are also sometimes used. Regardless of what kind of handle you have, the removal and installation process for a replacement is essentially the same.

That said, unless you are committed to replacing your entire shower valve assembly, you should only try to replace a handle of the same style. In other words, if you currently have a single-handle style, then you’ll need to look for another single-handle one to replace it.

Also, keep in mind that if you only plan to replace the shower handle (or handles), you obviously want to make the replacement as close to a match in style and color finish as possible to the rest of the fixtures in your shower or tub. Replacing a tub spout, for example, is a slightly trickier process than handle replacement, as spout lengths and their water pipe counterparts vary. So, if you can get away with just replacing the handles, it’ll save you some time.

If you’d like to try to buy from the same manufacturer, one trick is to look behind the trim plate for a brand name or manufacturer symbol if the name isn’t listed on the handles themselves. Take a look around for a model number while you’re at it, as model numbers are also sometimes listed behind trim plates or even under the tub spout.

Before you begin, use a drain stopper or drop cloth to block the drain opening to keep any small screws or other components from falling down the drain. Dropping small screws happens often and having them promptly vanish into the depths of your plumbing means halting your shower handle replacement project and heading up to your local hardware store to find the right screw.

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Do I Need to Turn Off the Water to Replace a Shower Handle?

The first step in a shower knob replacement is to turn off the water supply. Many showers have supply shut-off valves on the back or sides of the shower unit, but they’re usually hidden behind the wall. If you’re not in the middle of a larger shower remodel and you don’t have access to those supply lines, you’ll need to shut the water off to your entire home at the main shut-off valve. Once the water is shut off, place the valve in the on position to remove any excess pressure that might still be in the water pipe.

Removing the Handle

Next, find the shower knob handle’s screw. Depending on the style of shower handle, it could be under the decorative cap, or there could be a set screw underneath the handle. Unscrew the set screw using a hex-head wrench or a small Phillips screwdriver. When the set screw has been unscrewed, remove the handle from the valve.

Keep in mind that older handles can be pretty difficult to remove, especially if they’re corroded. If you find yourself in this situation, you can apply some plumber’s lubricant to the handle or use a special tool called a handle puller.

After the handle has been pulled off the valve, remove the escutcheon plate from the wall. Also called a trim plate, this is the panel that covers the hole in the shower wall leading to the valve body.

Installing the New Handle

Once you’ve removed the trim plate, you can begin the process of installing the new handle. For this step, wrap Teflon tape around the base of your faucet stem. Slide the new handle onto the faucet stem and screw it in place using the supplied set screw. For double- or triple-handle systems, the method is the same: Wrap Teflon tape around each stem and screw the handles into place using the supplied screws.

After the handles have been secured, place your trim plate over the top of your new handle and snap or screw it into place, depending on the brand of your trim kit. Once your trim plate has been installed, turn back your water supply back on and enjoy your new faucet.

Small Project, Big Reward

One of the easiest ways to upgrade a shower is changing out the hardware for a more updated look or greater functionality. It’s the kind of quick and painless project that will make you question why you didn’t tackle it sooner.

Got a Stopped-up Sink With a Sink Stopper? Pull Out All the Stops

Got a Stopped-up Sink With a Sink Stopper? Pull Out All the Stops

photo is looking down on a residential bathroom sink that is clogged and slowing draining water

Slow drains can be a hassle. You’re brushing your teeth or washing your face and notice the water isn’t draining from the sink as fast as it’s flowing in. You don’t want to stand there and wait for the sink to empty just so you can wash your hands. And if you’re not careful, a slow drain could lead to leaks and overflows in the future. It’d be easy enough if you could just look down the drain to locate the obstruction, but many bathroom sinks have stoppers that make them more difficult to unclog.

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Got a stopped-up sink with a sink stopper? Here’s how to remove both the drain stopper and the clog.

Common Reasons for Bathroom Sink Clogs

What’s causing your bathroom sink to clog in the first place? One of the most common culprits is hair. If you shave or cut your hair at the bathroom sink, hair can be washed down the drain. There, it clumps together and, eventually, causes clogs. Even if you don’t intentionally rinse hair down the sink, hair that falls out or breaks naturally during the process of brushing or styling can eventually collect in the plumbing below the sink.

Other common reasons for bathroom clogs include:

  • Soap and soap scum buildup
  • Dried or clumped product, including toothpaste
  • Small items stuck in the P-trap

pulling bathroom sink stopper

First, Remove the Stopper…

To unclog your sink, you’ll need to remove the bathroom sink stopper. Sometimes, the stopper is helping to form the clog, and by removing it, you may pull up or release some of the gunk that’s causing the slow drain.

Start by pulling by hand or turning the stopper. Some are made to be easily removed. If that’s not the case, you may need to use some tools and unfasten or unscrew the part holding the stopper in place under the sink. Here’s what to do:

  1. Locate a horizontal rod and stopper strap under the sink. The vertical strap is a metal strip with holes in it.
  2. Find the clip that holds these two pieces together. Take off the clip, but keep it close by. You’ll need it to put everything back together.
  3. Look for the nut attached to the rod and unscrew it. Water may come out when you do this, so put a container underneath the sink to catch it. At this point, you should be able to remove the stopper.

…Then Tackle the Clog

Some of these methods to unclog the bathroom sink will require that you remove the stopper. Others can be tried without going through that step.

Boiling Water

Boiling water can clear some clogs, especially those created by buildup or soap. Hot water dissolves grease and other solids so they can be pushed out of your pipes. Make sure the sink is empty and pour boiling water from a pot or kettle slowly down the drain. You can try this without removing the stopper. This can also work on some clogs in your kitchen sink.

Before you try this method, double check that your pipes are made of metal and not PVC; the boiling water may melt PVC pipes. Also, try not to pour the hot water directly onto the surface of your sink. Porcelain sinks may crack due to the abrupt temperature change.woman plunging sink

Use a Plunger

The plunger is something you can try when you’re working to unclog any drain. You can attempt this fix with the stopper in place, but it’s going to work best without the stopper in the way. Simply place the plunger over the drain and create a seal. Then, push the plunger up and down quickly a few times. This creates a force in the pipe that can push or pull a clog loose.

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Natural Products

Pouring a mixture of baking soda and vinegar down the sink can help dissolve some clogs. You may also be able to purchase drain cleaning products at the store for this purpose. As long as you can get some of these products down your drain to begin with — i.e., there’s no physical obstruction or standing water — you don’t need to remove the stopper.man rotating a drain snake into a kitchen sink to unclog the pipe

Snake the Pipe

Remove the P-trap from below your sink and look for any visible clogs. Then, you can use a drain snake or even a straightened wire coat hanger to push the clog out from above. Usually, you have to remove the stopper to do this, but you might be able to get a thin pipe snake down the drain without doing so. Put a large bowl or bucket under the sink to catch any water.

When Should You Call a Professional About Your Clog?

Many clogs can be handled with these and other DIY measures, especially if you have a little bit of plumbing knowledge. The above tips, for example, can also be used to unclog bathroom drains or deal with similar issues in the kitchen.

But not all issues can be attacked with a pot of boiling water or a plunger. If you’re dealing with something like a clogged sewer line or a clog your drain snake can’t reach, you may need to call in a professional. Ignoring the clog could lead to even more expensive repairs later on. Standing water may cause moisture damage, mold or even nastier problems.

Since we’re all home now more than ever, being prepared for unexpected home repairs with a plan from Service Line Warranties of America is important. Having a plan in place gives you peace of mind knowing that you can simply call our 24/7 repair hotline for covered breakdowns. See what plans are available in your neighborhood.

Pipe Burst? Here’s What to Do Next

Pipe Burst? Here’s What to Do Next

burst pipe with water coming out

There’s nothing worse than that sinking feeling that sets in when you notice water dripping from your ceiling or — worse — gushing from a broken pipe. Many homeowners find themselves panicking as they start to tally up the water damage repair costs. Fortunately, a bit of forward planning can help you avert a total plumbing disaster.

This May Also Interest You: Prevent Frozen-Pipe Problems by Knowing These Things Down Cold

If a water pipe bursts in your home, it’s important to act quickly to prevent serious water damage to your house and belongings. Knowing what to do when you have a broken water pipe can save you a lot of money on costly plumbing and building repairs.

What Happens When a Pipe Bursts?

There are several reasons that your pipes could burst, though one of the leading culprits is ice. When the temperature outside dips below freezing, the water in your pipes can freeze, too. When water freezes, it expands, putting significant pressure on your pipework.

When your pipes freeze for the first time, they may withstand the added pressure without any adverse effects. However, allowing your pipes to freeze repeatedly will gradually weaken them as they expand and contract, eventually causing them to burst or crack.

Other potential causes of burst pipes include:

  • Corrosion
  • High water pressure
  • Blockages
  • Invading tree roots

Whatever the reason for a burst pipe, spotting it early is crucial for protecting your home.

How Do You Know If Your Pipes Have Burst?

When you mention broken pipes, most people imagine water gushing dramatically from the wall or ceiling. However, the first signs are often subtler. It’s a good idea to look out for the less obvious symptoms of a major leak.

When a water pipe bursts, moisture starts seeping into your floors, ceilings and insulation, causing significant damage. Eventually, mold and mildew start to flourish, creating a potentially hazardous living environment. If you find yourself wading through puddles of water on the floor or can hear water bubbling inside the walls, you won’t be left in any doubt as to whether you have a burst pipe.

Other, less obvious signs include:water meter wrapped with dollar bills

Unexplained Hike in Water Bills

If your water bill suddenly shoots up for no apparent reason, it could be a sign of a burst water main. As water seeps out of the pipe, it sends your water usage sky high. Any unexpected increase in your water bills warrants further investigation.dripping faucet

Reduced Water Pressure

A broken water main or burst pipe means your system must work harder to maintain a supply to your faucets and other fixtures. Therefore, reduced or uneven water pressure could be a sign that you’ve got a leak. While there are a few potential causes of dodgy water pressure, it’s important to find the reason quickly to prevent water damage.

No Flow

Reduced water pressure is inconvenient enough, but you may suddenly find that you have no water flow at all. One of the most likely reasons for a complete lack of running water is a frozen pipe. You should defrost your pipes as quickly as possible to stop them from bursting.

If you can access the frozen pipe, you could try defrosting it yourself. Turn on the central heating to around 70 degrees and use a gentle heat source like a hairdryer or infrared lamp to warm the pipe up gradually — never use a blowtorch or other open flame. If the pipe is inaccessible or your efforts aren’t fruitful, call a plumber to defrost the pipes for you.

Damp Patches in Your Home or Yard

As water flows out of a burst pipe, you may notice damp or discolored patches on your walls, floors or ceilings. If the leak happens under a tiled floor, it could make the tiles feel wobbly or unstable.

Don’t forget to look for exterior signs of a burst pipe. Depending on the location, you may also see puddles, depressions or wobbly pavement in your yard.

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turning hot water valve

What Do You Do If Your Pipes Burst?

As soon as you see the signs of a pipe burst in your house, you should immediately turn the water supply off at the main. If you have a minute, locate your stopcock now so you’re able to find it fast in an emergency. Turning the water off stops the flow to your pipes and prevents more water from seeping into your home.

Next, call an emergency plumber to locate and fix the burst pipe. While you can often repair minor leaks yourself, a burst pipe requires urgent diagnosis and replacement by a professional.

While you wait for the plumber, there are steps you can take to reduce the damage. Start by moving furniture and any valuable items as far away from the burst pipe as possible. Doing this will also make it quicker and easier for the plumber to access the problem area when they arrive.

If you can see and access the leak, plugging it with rags can staunch the flow and protect your walls and insulation. You can reduce damage to your floor by placing buckets to catch any flowing or dripping water. Use towels to dry any puddles.

water service line

Protect Your Home Long-Term

Prevention is better than cure when it comes to frozen pipes and broken water mains. Fortunately, there are some simple and cost-effective ways to prevent major leaks and protect your home:

  • Use insulation to prevent freezing pipes
  • Keep your central heating on when outside temperatures drop below freezing
  • Repair small leaks quickly
  • Resolve clogs and corrosion as soon as you notice them

Being prepared with a plumbing plan from Service Line Warranties of America can help you handle unexpected plumbing emergencies. When you have a plan in place, simply call our 24/7 hotline to get connected with pros who can get your system up and running again. See what plans are available in your area.

How Much Does It Cost to Replace a Bathroom Sink?

How Much Does It Cost to Replace a Bathroom Sink?

Bathroom Sink Replacement Costs at a Glance

  • Average total cost: $470-$700
  • Sink: $100-$250
  • Faucet: $50-$800
  • Tile countertop: $2-$75 per tile
  • Solid surface countertop: $75-$150 per square foot
  • Granite countertop: $75-$300 per square foot
  • Quartz countertop: $110-$250 per square foot
  • Labor cost: $20-$150 per hour

The bathroom sink is a high-traffic, functional fixture your family uses several times a day. Whether you’ve got kids regularly putting the porcelain through its paces or the sink in your master bath just doesn’t give the spa vibes you desire, replacing a bathroom sink might be a home improvement task for you.

This May Also Interest You: How to Replace or Install a Bathroom Faucet

Is bathroom sink installation something you want to tackle on your own, or should you hire a professional? Discover more about the cost to replace a bathroom sink below.

Reasons to Replace Your Bathroom Sink

People replace bathroom sinks for many reasons, but the “why” behind this small bathroom reno task can actually impact the cost of installation. Here are a few common reasons you might decide to replace a bathroom sink:

Damage

Perhaps the kids smashed it one too many times with hard toys and there’s a crack, or maybe time has worn away the protective glaze. Replacing the sink in this case can help reduce functionality issues or leaks.

Mold or Mildew

An ill-fitting sink or one that’s damaged could support mold or mildew growth. Tiny leaks, seeps or problems draining, for example, can spur such problems on. You’ll likely have to fix this problem before you can install a new sink, which may add to the total cost.

Upgrade Time

If you want a more functional faucet or bathroom vanity, you may wish to replace the bathroom sink. Or maybe you just think the existing sink is ugly. You’re tired of looking at an eyesore every time you brush your teeth, or you’ve redecorated the rest of the bathroom and it’s time for the sink to catch up.

Average Cost to Replace a Bathroom Sink

According to Porch.com, the average cost for replacing a sink runs from $470 to $700, including materials and labor. The Home Depot, for example, charges $200 to $350 to install a sink, though that doesn’t include the cost of the sink, faucet or any related plumbing work that might need to be done. The sink itself costs between $100 and $250 on average.

Can I Replace a Bathroom Sink Myself?

Replacing a bathroom sink isn’t a small home improvement task, but it can be a DIY job if you have the right tools and skills. You’ll need to be comfortable with detailed measuring and basic plumbing. If you want to replace the sink and vanity at the same time, you can get all-in-one kits cut for you to make the job easier.

If a plumbing issue is the reason why you want to replace the sink, you may want to consult a professional for assistance. They may need to make more changes than just the sink to resolve the issue. They can also let you know if sink repair is a good alternative to replacement.

How Long Does It Take to Change a Bathroom Sink?

If you’re just swapping out a sink for another or dropping a vanity and sink into place, the job usually takes less than four or five hours. Bigger sink replacement jobs can take a bit longer. It all comes down to how skilled you are, whether you run into unplanned issues and what you need modify to fit your needs. Need to cut out more space on a countertop? That’s going to add some time.

How Much Does It Cost to Replace a Bathroom Countertop?

Obviously, if you want to replace the vanity top as well as the sink, that will cost you more money. According to HGTV, the type of countertop you choose can drastically change the cost.

Tile is often the cheapest, costing $2 to $75 per tile, depending on the material. Solid surface materials that look like stone can cost between $75 and $150 per square foot. Granite costs $75 to $300 per square foot. Manufactured quartz costs between $110 and $250 per square foot.

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clean bathroom sink and faucet

How Much Does a New Faucet Cost?

If you want to add a new faucet to your bathroom sink installation project, that will increase the total price. Faucets come in a wide range of styles and finishes, so you could be looking at an expense between $50 and $800 or more.

The cost of the faucet depends on the functionality, design, materials and designer. Many bathroom faucets come with common hardware for installation, but you may need to buy additional items to complete the process. This is especially true if you’re switching from a one-hole to a three-hole faucet or vice versa, as you may need to cut out or hide counter holes and run some different lines.

technicians

How Much Does a Plumber Charge to Replace a Bathroom Sink?

Plumbers usually charge by the hour, though some may have flat fees for specific types of work. Plumber costs can range from $20 to $150 per hour. You’ll also have to pay for any materials, like the sink and faucet.

If a sink installation job does take several hours, you may have to pay hundreds of dollars in addition to the cost of materials. If you require sink work on a weekend or holiday, the cost may be higher.

When You Should Call a Plumber

Dropping in a new sink is a DIY job many people are comfortable with. But if you need to rerun or adjust pipes, it might be time to call a plumber to avoid issues down the road. And if you do have a problem where water is rushing into areas where it’s not supposed to be, you will definitely want to call for professional help.

Since we’re all home now more than ever, being prepared for unexpected home repairs with a plan from Service Lines Warranties of America is important. Having a plan in place gives you peace of mind knowing that you can simply call our 24/7 repair hotline for covered breakdowns. See what plans are available in your neighborhood.

Can You Pour Cooking Grease Down the Drain? No. Here’s Why

Your kitchen sink drain is where unwanted liquids go — dirty dishwater, expired milk and that cup of coffee you made but forgot to drink. Cooking oils and liquid grease seem to fit into this category. However, dumping that stuff down the drain is a great way to get a greasy blockage in your pipes.

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So, no. You really shouldn’t pour grease, oil or animal fat down any kind of drain, including your toilet. The reason why is a little gross, but you need to hear it …

What Happens If You Pour Grease Down the Drain?

When you finish cooking bacon, the grease in the pan is a liquid. Let it sit for a few hours at room temperature and it’ll harden. That’s exactly what happens in your pipes if you pour liquid grease down the drain or garbage disposal. But when it congeals in your pipes, it gums up the works.

At first, you may notice water drains from your sink slower than before. Soon, you may experience full backups. If you have a septic system, grease can cause all sorts of problems. All-Clear Septic & Wastewater Services of Massachusetts warns that, if you ignore fat buildup, eventually, your pipes may have to be dug up and replaced.

What If the Oil Is Liquid at Room Temperature?

Cooking oils will stay liquid no matter how long you let them sit out — but oil and water still don’t mix. According to Mike Wilson Plumbing of Virginia, liquid oils coat the inside of your pipes, creating a sticky trap for food scraps and an ideal environment for clogs.

What Else Shouldn’t Go Down the Drain?

A good rule of thumb is never to pour cooking oils or grease from cooked meat down the drain. But to avoid buildup, Hunker says you should avoid dumping these, too:

  • Salad dressing
  • Coconut oil
  • Peanut butter
  • Butter
  • Lard
  • Mayonnaise
  • Cosmetic oils
  • Petroleum jelly

Can I Pour Grease Down the Drain With Dish Soap?

Dish soap is designed to break down the grease on your pots, pans and plates, but it’s not powerful enough to dissolve large amounts of oil. While it may help flush fatty deposits out of your own pipes, the grease is just pushed farther into the sewer system or your septic tank.

‘Fatbergs’

If your pipes are connected to a city sewer system, pouring grease down the drain can cause problems on a much larger scale. In the sewer, your hardened grease mixes with everyone else’s, forming an ever-growing, solid mass of fat. Indiscriminate flushing of non-flushable items — Q-tips, floss and even “flushable” wipes — clogs the sewers with materials that can’t be broken down. These catch on the globs of fat and combine to create “fatbergs” that can weigh several tons.

This has happened in several major cities around the world, including London and Detroit. (Before you click, be warned: These are pretty gross.) In Baltimore, a massive fatberg caused a million-gallon sewer overflow.

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How to Properly Dispose of Grease

Hopefully, the idea of a bus-size fat mass is enough to convince you that you shouldn’t pour grease down the drain. But you’ll still need to dispose of it somehow.

A little oil in the bottom of a pan can be wiped out with a paper towel. Let larger amounts of grease and butter cool off, then pour them into a disposable container to solidify. Pour cooled cooking oil back into the container it came in or another large jug. Make sure the lid is on tight before you throw it away.

What Can I Do If I Poured Grease Down the Drain?

Any oil, fat or grease you dump down the drain may contribute to these large accumulations in your city’s sewer system or deposits in your septic system — but there are a few things you can do to keep fat from building up in your pipes.

According to Mr. Rooter Plumbing, hot water will turn the grease back into a liquid so it can continue down your pipes. Pour a gallon of boiling water down the drain along with some dish soap. You may also want to run hot water from the faucet. Before you pour any boiling water, check whether your pipes are metal or PVC; PVC pipes could melt under extreme heat.

Some drain cleaners claim to break down greasy clogs, but using them too often isn’t good for your plumbing. Discover Plumbing and Rooter of California recommends a baking-soda-and-vinegar approach. Shake half a cup of baking soda into the drain, then pour an equal amount of white vinegar after it. The fizzing reaction will help dissolve the fat. After 10 minutes, flush it out with boiling water.

Since we’re all home now more than ever, being prepared for unexpected home repairs with a plan from HomeServe is important. Having a plan in place gives you peace of mind knowing that you can simply call our 24/7 repair hotline for covered breakdowns. See what plans are available in your neighborhood.

Never Flush These 11 Things Down Your Toilet

Never Flush These 11 Things Down Your Toilet

We all put things down our toilet that aren’t exactly supposed to be there — whether out of convenience or ignorance. But you should know that your habit of flushing cat litter or Q-tips might be harmful to both your house’s septic system and your city’s sewer system.

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When you flush your toilet, the wastewater drains into your pipes, then into the city sewer system or your septic tank. Items that don’t belong in your pipes can create massive clogs, which could result in your septic system backing up into your home. In severe cases, New York City’s Department of Environmental Protection says trash can clog citywide sewer pipes and damage the equipment at wastewater treatment facilities.

Say it with us: “My septic system is not designed to handle anything other than human waste and toilet paper.”

In theory, that makes sense. But there are still so many things that seem flushable. These are some of the most commonly flushed items — and the reasons why you should keep them out of the toilet:

1. ‘Flushable’ Products

This one’s kind of a paradox: Almost everything labeled “flushable” shouldn’t be flushed. According to Templeton, Calif.’s Water Conservation Department, “flushable” only means that an item can be flushed without clogging the toilet. But that’s not a good metric by which to judge whether something will be harmful to your septic system or your city’s sewer system. Most so-called flushable items — wipes, diapers, seat covers and cleaning products — don’t break down completely, which can cause clogs later on.

2. Bathroom Trash

Bathroom waste often gets chucked into the toilet just because of proximity. After all, the toilet also transports waste from one place to another, right? Avoid the temptation and throw these items in the trash instead:

  • Dental floss
  • Q-tips and cotton balls
  • Menstrual products
  • Band-Aids
  • Contact lenses
  • Condoms
  • Disposable masks and gloves

3. Food

Tell your kids to stop flushing their bread crusts. According to Mr. Rooter Plumbing, your toilet is not the place for food scraps. Food doesn’t break down the same way as human waste, which means it might end up sitting in your pipes for a while. Scraps like bones or fruit pits will take a long time to break down, and oils and fats will solidify in the pipes.

4. Non-Toilet Paper

Have you ever seen a paper towel commercial? You know how the advertiser will show off the strength of the product by using a few paper towels to carry a watermelon (or another heavy object)? Toilet paper commercials rarely feature such a segment because toilet paper is designed to break down as soon as it hits the water. Other paper products — like tissues, wipes and paper towels  are supposed to hold up under the same circumstances. For that reason, they can build up in sewer systems and cause blockages.

While we’re at it, don’t flush newspaper, documents, photos, paper packaging or the cardboard toilet paper roll, either.

5. Medicine and Prescriptions

According to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, flushing pharmaceuticals can harm waterways because wastewater treatment plants aren’t designed to remove these substances from the water. The chemicals in over-the-counter and prescription medications can harm fish and contaminate drinking water.

That said, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has a “Flush List” of commonly abused prescription medications that have been deemed OK to flush if you can’t locate a drug take-back location.

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6. Diapers

Flushing a diaper is a one-way ticket to a clogged toilet. Wastewater Treatment Services of Texas says diapers won’t break down in the water. So, even if you can flush one without clogging the system initially, you may have some expensive repairs waiting for you down the line. Baby wipes — though they may pass without a clog — shouldn’t be flushed, either.

7. Fish

Pet fish have long been dignified with water burials — but it turns out that flushing your fish is harmful to more than just your septic system. Sometimes your little finned friend that’s gone belly up hasn’t actually expired, and contrary to what you may believe, your toilet isn’t a direct line to the ocean. This means that your fish may wind up dying in a wastewater treatment plant. Or — as Buffalo Niagara Waterkeeper explains — your pet goldfish might accidentally end up in a local waterway after an overflow, where it’s an invasive species that may harm other wildlife.

8. Cat Litter

If you prefer furry friends, you may have considered throwing their waste in the toilet. According to the Environmental Protection Agency, it’s usually fine to flush doggy doo, as long as it’s not in a plastic bag. It’ll be treated just like human waste.

The same does not apply if you have a cat who uses a litter box. Just take this warning from Supeck Septic Services of Medina, Ohio: “Flushing kitty litter — even ‘flushable’ kitty litter — wreaks havoc on your septic system and can quickly lead to catastrophic, whole-system failure.”

9. Hair

Long hair likes to stick to the inside of pipes. According to American Water, flushing a clump of hair can create a net-like structure that traps other objects, leading to clogs.

10. Nail Clippings

Like hair, fingernail and toenail clippings are technically organic matter, but that doesn’t mean they’ll break down in your septic tank. Avoid problems by clipping your nails into the trash can, instead.

11. Chemicals or Poisons

Automotive chemicals, fuels, solvents and poisons should stay far away from your toilet, as they can harm your drain lines. According to the National Agricultural Safety Database, these toxic substances can leach into the soil or contaminate groundwater and waterways. To be safe, never pour these things down any household drain, including your toilet:

  • Paint or paint thinner
  • Gasoline, kerosene or lighter fluid
  • Antifreeze, motor oil or brake fluid
  • Pesticides or fertilizers
  • Pest poisons

Since we’re all home now more than ever, being prepared for unexpected home repairs with a plan from HomeServe is important. Having a plan in place gives you peace of mind knowing that you can simply call our 24/7 repair hotline for covered breakdowns. See what plans are available in your neighborhood.